[Textile knowledge] Polyester, do you really know it?

Polyester is one of the synthetic fibers An important variety is the trade name of polyester fiber in my country. It is a fiber-forming polymer made from purified terephthalic acid…

Polyester is one of the synthetic fibers An important variety is the trade name of polyester fiber in my country. It is a fiber-forming polymer made from purified terephthalic acid (PTA) or dimethyl terephthalate (DMT) and ethylene glycol (MEG) through esterification or transesterification and polycondensation reaction – Polyethylene terephthalate (PET), a fiber made by spinning and post-processing.

Molecular structural formula, as shown in the figure :

Made from polyester molecules It appears that it is composed of short aliphatic hydrocarbon chains, ester groups, benzene rings, and terminal alcohol hydroxyl groups. Except for the two terminal alcohol hydroxyl groups in polyester, there are no other polar groups, so the hydrophilicity of polyester fiber is extremely poor. The polyester molecule contains about 46% ester groups. The ester groups can undergo hydrolysis and thermal cracking above 200℃. When encountering strong alkali, they will be saponified, reducing the degree of polymerization. Commonly used detergents and washing powders below 100℃ have no effect on polyester. Influence.

Polyester features: high strength, elasticity It has good heat resistance, heat insulation, abrasion resistance and corrosion resistance. However, its dyeability and hygroscopicity are relatively poor, but its color fastness is good and it is not easy to fade. Because there are no specific dyeing groups on the polyester molecular chain and the polarity is small, it is difficult to dye and has poor dyeability. It is difficult for dye molecules to enter the fiber. It feels stuffy when worn, and is easily charged with static electricity and contaminated with dust, which affects the performance of the fiber. Aesthetics and comfort. However, it dries very easily after washing, has almost no drop in wet strength, does not deform, and has good washable and wearable properties.

There are many types of polyester fiber fabrics. In addition to weaving pure polyester fabrics, there are also many products that are blended or interwoven with various textile fibers. It makes up for the shortcomings of pure polyester fabric and exerts better wearing performance. Polyester fabrics are developing in the direction of natural synthetic fibers such as wool-like, silk-like, linen-like, and deerskin-like fabrics.

Advantages of polyester-cotton blend

Contrast effect of polyester-cotton blended fabric and pure cotton fabric: strength and elongation (polyester-cotton Blended > pure cotton); wear resistance (polyester-cotton blended > pure cotton); pilling (polyester-cotton blended pure cotton); moisture permeability (polyester-cotton blended pure cotton).

“Polyester cotton” and “cotton polyester”, just change the order of the two words. Two different fabrics.

“Polyester-cotton” (TC) fabric refers to the composition of polyester Accounting for more than 50%, the cotton content is less than 50%;

Advantages: glossier than pure Cotton is bright, feels smooth and crisp, and is not easy to wrinkle. Moreover, the higher the polyester content, the less likely the fabric is to wrinkle.

Disadvantages: Not as skin-friendly as cotton, and not as comfortable to wear as cotton fabrics.

“Cotton-polyester” (CVC) is just the opposite, which means that the composition of cotton is more than 50% and the composition of polyester is less than 50%, also called CVC variety.

Advantages: The luster is slightly brighter than pure cotton cloth, the cloth surface is smooth, clean and free of yarn ends or impurities. It feels smooth and crisp, and is more wrinkle-resistant than pure cotton.

Disadvantages: Not as skin-friendly as cotton, and not as comfortable to wear as cotton fabrics.

Advantages of polyester and linen blends

In the past, linen textiles had high yarn density and only It can weave medium and low-end products, and is only suitable for outerwear, decorative fabrics, etc. It does not reflect the unique advantages of linen textiles such as good moisture absorption, good moisture release, and coolness. Nowadays, polyester fiber and flax fiber are blended to produce a series of high-end linen blended products suitable for summer inner and outer clothing. What are the characteristics of polyester and linen blended fabrics?

1. Cool to the touch

The flax fiber blending ratio is 35%-40%, and the flax fiber coverage rate of the yarn appearance is high. Therefore, when the human skin contacts the polyester/linen low-tech yarn fabric, the heat on the human body surface will be quickly dissipated, thus making the person There is a cool feeling.

 2. The fabric is light and brightly dyed

The yarn is relatively fine, generally below 20tex (50 tex or more), and can be interwoven alone or with pure or blended yarns of other textile fibers to form ultra-thin fabrics. The product is of high grade, with bright, beautiful and gorgeous dyeing and printing. The fabric is famous for being cool, transparent, thin and refreshing.

 3. Good wrinkle resistance

Due to the fiber characteristics, the advantages of polyester’s good wrinkle resistance can be used to improve the shortcomings of linen fiber fabrics that are easy to wrinkle and are not brightly dyed, and can also be used The advantages of flax fiber’s good moisture absorption and moisture release properties improve polyester fabric’s shortcomings of poor moisture absorption and uncomfortable wearing.�.

 4. Comfortable to wear and easy to wash

The proportion of polyester and linen yarns and fabric blends is moderate, and the fabric feels soft , easy to wash, easy to dry, good plasticity and shape, and does not deform after washing. It has the same moisture absorption, moisture release, and breathability as pure linen fabric. It is a non-sticky high-end summer inner and outer fabric.

Advantages of polyester and cashmere blends

Wool:polyester=45:55 This ratio can maintain the advantages of wool. It can also take advantage of the advantages of polyester. Almost all coarse and worsted wool fabrics have corresponding wool-polyester blended varieties. Among them, worsted wool-polyester thin tweed, also known as cool tweed, is commonly known as Mao Qianliang (Note: Qianliang is the common name for polyester). It is one of the fabrics that best reflects the characteristics of wool-polyester blends.

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Author: clsrich