Introduction There are many classifications of looms. According to the weft insertion method of weaving, they can be divided into shuttle looms and shuttleless looms. The weft inse…


There are many classifications of looms. According to the weft insertion method of weaving, they can be divided into shuttle looms and shuttleless looms.
The weft insertion of a shuttle loom is a loom that uses a traditional wooden shuttle or plastic shuttle for weft insertion. Due to the large size and heavy weight of the shuttle, the shuttle is repeatedly projected back and forth, causing the machine to have high vibration, high noise, high energy consumption, slow speed, and low efficiency.
The weft insertion methods of shuttleless looms are also diverse, including rapier, air jet, water jet, projectile and multi-shed (multi-phase) methods.
Rapier loom. Rigid or flexible rapier heads, rapier belts or rigid rapiers can be used to clamp and guide the weft yarn for weaving.
The rapier loom is characterized by easy color change, suitable for multi-color weft fabrics, and suitable for the production of yarn-dyed fabrics, double-layer velvet fabrics, terry fabrics and decorative fabrics.
Air jet loom. The jetted compressed air is used to pull the weft yarn through the shed for weaving. The characteristics of air-jet loom are fast speed and high labor productivity. It is suitable for the production of plain and twill fabrics, fine and high-density fabrics and large-volume fabrics.
With the advancement of air-jet loom technology, the variety adaptability is becoming wider and wider.
Water jet loom. Water is used as the weft insertion medium, and the jet water is used to generate friction and traction on the weft yarn, so that the weft yarn on the fixed bobbin is introduced into the shed for weaving. The water-jet loom has the characteristics of high speed and high unit output, and is mainly suitable for the production of hydrophobic chemical fiber filament fabrics with smooth surfaces.
Projectile loom. A small sheet-shaped shuttle with a clip is used to clamp the weft yarn, and the weft insertion is continuously projected for weaving. The projectile loom has the advantages of stable weft insertion, good fabric quality, and less weft yarn retrieval. It is suitable for the production of multi-color weft fabrics, fine, thick, wide and special fiber fabrics.
There are many types of multi-shed (multi-phase) looms, which can be woven with multi-shed weft insertion using rapier, chain belt or air-jet methods. They are suitable for weaving single varieties and large quantities of fabrics.
The basic feature of the shuttleless loom is to separate the weft yarn package from the shuttle, or to carry only a small amount of weft yarn, and to replace the large and heavy shuttle with a small and light weft insertion device, which provides high-speed weft insertion. Favorable conditions. In the supply of weft yarn, the package is directly used, and the weft insertion device is entered into the weft insertion mechanism through the weft storage device, so that the loom is freed from frequent weft replenishment actions. Therefore, the adoption of shuttleless looms is of great significance for increasing fabric varieties, adjusting fabric structure, reducing fabric defects, improving fabric quality, reducing noise, improving working conditions, and reducing energy consumption.
Internationally, shuttleless weaving technology has been studied since the 19th century. The earliest research was rapier weft insertion. John Smith obtained the rapier patent in 1844. The rigid rapier was created in 1870, the rigid rapier technology was perfected in 1899, and the flexible rapier technology was created in 1922.
Trial production of rapier looms began in the 1930s. In 1951, the rapier loom was exhibited for the first time at the International Cloth Machinery Exhibition. Later, it was gradually improved and commercialized. Projectile weft insertion was patented by American Poster in 1911. Projectile looms were developed exclusively by the Swiss Sulzer Ruti Company in 1942. The first batch of projectile looms was officially put into use in 1953, and the second projectile loom was put into use in 1955. Projectile looms were exhibited at the 2016 International Fabric Machinery Exhibition and gradually commercialized. Air-jet weft insertion was patented by American Byooks in 1914 and was trial-produced in the 1950s. At the Second International Fabric Machinery Exhibition in 1955, air-jet looms and water-jet looms were simultaneously exhibited and gradually commercialized. Different forms of polyphase looms originated in Europe and need to be improved.
Shuttleless looms have been gradually introduced to the international market and commercialized since the 1950s. Since then, after more than 20 years of continuous improvement and improvement, shuttleless weaving technology has made rapid progress. Since the 1970s, many new shuttleless looms have been put on the market. Especially in the past two decades, shuttleless looms have achieved remarkable results in improving fabric quality and increasing loom efficiency. They have been widely adopted in countries around the world and have accelerated the process of weaving equipment transformation. At present, shuttleless looms in developed industrialized countries have basically replaced shuttle looms.
Since the late 1950s, our country has adopted the policy of combining independent development and imported technology, and actively developed shuttleless looms. The development of shuttleless looms in my country has roughly gone through three stages.
From the late 1950s to the early 1980s, China Fabric Machinery Co., Ltd. first developed air-jet looms, rapier looms and projectile looms, and produced various models and specifications of looms. Run and trial by the user factory. However, due to the lack of introduction of advanced foreign manufacturing technology, its design, development and technical strength were very limited, so it was unable to develop mature products during this period. It cannot be put into mass production.
The second stage was from the mid-1980s to the mid-1990s when China implemented reform and opening up. Under the guidance of national policies, some key state-owned enterprises and some local textile machinery enterprises responded to market demand for shuttleless looms. , adopting various methods such as introducing foreign shuttleless loom design and manufacturing technology or cooperating with foreign (overseas) companies to produce shuttleless looms, investing in the construction of new loom production lines. During the “Seventh Five-Year Plan” and “Eighth Five-Year Plan”, five state-owned fabric machinery companies undertook the national technology introduction and cooperative production of shuttleless loom projects, including China Fabric Machinery Co., Ltd.’s introduction of the TP500 series rapier looms from the Italian Smit Company. The design and manufacturing technology of Henan Fabric Machinery Factory introduces the design and manufacturing technology of LT102 rapier loom of Toyota Company of Japan; Shenyang Fabric Machinery Factory introduces�The design and manufacturing technology of LW52 water-jet loom of Japanese Nissan Company; Xianyang Fabric Machinery Factory introduced the design and manufacturing technology of ZA202 and ZA203 air-jet loom of Japan Tsudakoma Company, etc. In 1992, Xianyang Fabric Machinery Factory introduced the design and manufacturing technology of Japan’s ZA205i and ZA209i air-jet looms; Jiangxi Nanfei Fabric Machinery Company, which is affiliated to the aviation industry system, introduced the design and manufacturing technology of Japan’s Toyota JAT600 and JAT600A air-jet looms.
While the national projects are introducing technology, textile machinery enterprises in some provinces and cities have also introduced design and manufacturing technology and cooperative production of shuttleless looms to relevant foreign (overseas) companies.
The third stage, from 1994 to the present, has seen a rush to produce shuttleless looms. There are dozens of domestic companies producing shuttleless looms, and foreign shuttleless loom manufacturers have also successively They came to China to build factories to produce shuttleless looms, and quickly formed a shuttleless loom production group in China that produces different product categories and different technical levels. After shuttleless looms formed mass production capabilities, the production quantity of shuttle looms was decreasing year by year, and the structure of the domestic weaving industry was moving towards shuttleless.
In the 21st century, the fabric industry will continue to deepen reforms, increase reorganization, transformation and structural adjustment, and achieve all-round industrial upgrading. Industrial upgrading will promote the upgrading of key equipment in fabric industry enterprises, and the future will also be a great opportunity for the development of shuttleless looms in my country. From the perspective of the international market, the fabric industry in developed countries is facing a new turning point. The design and manufacturing technology of shuttleless looms has further improved. At the same time, these traditional fabric industries have a tendency to continue to be transferred to developing countries. From the analysis of the domestic market or the international market, shuttleless looms have relatively broad development prospects. After joining the WTO and integrating with international trade, market competition will become more intense, and development opportunities and challenges will coexist. Domestic shuttleless loom manufacturers will make efforts to adjust their product technology structure through their own efforts and take advantage of the opportunities of reform and opening up and integration with the international market. Improve the reliability and technical level of shuttleless looms, and provide the fabric industry with shuttleless looms with good variety adaptability, high quality, reasonable price and excellent service.


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Author: clsrich