Classification of differentiated fibers



Classification of differentiated fibers Classification of differentiated fibers Differentiated fibers generally refer to chemical fibers that are innovative to conventional chemica…

Classification of differentiated fibers

Classification of differentiated fibers
Differentiated fibers generally refer to chemical fibers that are innovative to conventional chemical fibers or have certain characteristics. There are many varieties of differentiated fibers, which are mainly used in clothing and decorative fabrics.
In terms of morphological structure, differentiated fibers mainly include special-shaped fibers, hollow fibers, composite fibers and fine (denier) fibers.
Special-shaped fibers are chemical fibers with special cross-sections spun through certain geometric (non-circular) spinnerets. Depending on the spinneret used, triangular, polygonal, trilobal, multi-lobed, cross-shaped, flat, Y-shaped, H-shaped, dumbbell-shaped, etc. can be obtained. Hollow fiber is a chemical fiber that runs through the fiber axis and has a tubular cavity. It can be obtained by changing the shape of the spinneret hole. The biggest characteristics of hollow fiber are low density and strong warmth retention. It is suitable for making down-type products, such as high-grade cotton, imitation down jackets, sleeping bags, etc. Composite fiber is a chemical fiber spun from two or more polymers or the same polymer with different properties through composite spinning. If composite fibers are made of two polymers, they are bicomponent fibers. In addition, there are fine (denier) fibers, which are fibers with a smaller single-filament linear density, also known as microfibers. The methods commonly used to spin fine denier fibers include: composite spinning stripping method, dissolution method, conventional melting method, super drawing method, flash evaporation method and melt blowing method. In particular, polyester fine denier fiber occupies a dominant position among textile fibers due to its good wearing properties. High-simulation fibers have been imitated to replace natural fibers, making silk-like fabrics light, soft, smooth and smooth, and suitable for ultra-thin fabrics. After the polyester fabric is treated with alkali weight reduction and then treated with a special soft and hydrophilic finish, the appearance and feel of real silk can be obtained.
In terms of physical and chemical properties, differentiated fibers include antistatic fibers, high shrinkage fibers, flame retardant fibers, anti-pilling fibers, etc.
Antistatic fiber is a chemical fiber that is less likely to accumulate static charges. Antistatic fibers are mainly used in the production of dust-free sterile clothing, explosion-proof work clothes, carpets, masks and other textiles. The boiling water shrinkage rate of high shrinkage fiber is higher than that of chemical fiber of 15%. Depending on the degree of heat shrinkage, final products with different styles and properties can be obtained. For example, high-shrink polyester with a thermal shrinkage rate of 15%-25% can be used to weave various crepe, embossed, and jacquard fabrics; high-shrink polyester fiber with a shrinkage rate of 15%-35% can be used for bulked wool, Blankets, artificial fur, etc.; high shrinkage polyester with a shrinkage rate of 35%-50%, used for synthetic leather, artificial suede, etc. Flame-retardant fiber can also be called flame-resistant, flame-retardant or flame-proof fiber. Chemical fibers that only smolder in flames and do not produce flames themselves. When removed from the fire source, the smoldering chemical fiber is self-extinguishing. Its limiting oxygen index value is approximately above 0.3. Flame-retardant fibers are mainly used to spin clothing for children and the elderly, bedding, decorative fabrics, fire-resistant work clothes, ropes, tents, industrial fabrics, etc. that have flame-retardant requirements.
Although chemical fibers, especially synthetic fibers, have relatively good mechanical properties and good storage properties during clothing use, compared with natural fibers, they still have many shortcomings and deficiencies in terms of feel and wearing comfort. Therefore, in order to explore the appearance, feel, comfort and dyeing properties of synthetic fiber fabrics and provide more new raw materials for clothing, differentiated fibers have been greatly developed in recent years.
The term “differentiated fiber” comes from Japan. It refers to chemical fibers that are innovative or have certain characteristics on conventional chemical fibers. Differentiated fibers are mainly used to improve the wearing properties of fabrics and are mainly used in clothing and decorative fabrics. The use of this fiber can improve production efficiency, shorten production processes, save energy, reduce pollution, and increase new textile products.
Differentiated fibers are mainly produced through chemical modification or physical deformation of chemical fibers, which include modification in the polymerization and spinning processes and deformation in the spinning, stretching and deformation processes.
Introduction to common differentiated fibers
1. Special-shaped fiber Special-shaped fiber refers to chemical fibers with special cross-sectional shapes spun with special-shaped spinnerets.
Special-shaped fibers have special luster, bulk, stain resistance, and pilling resistance, which can improve the elasticity and coverage of the fiber. For example, triangular fiber has sparkle, pentagonal fiber has a distinct wooly feel and good pilling resistance, pentagonal multifilament is similar to silk, and hollow fiber has a relatively low density, is warm, and has a good hand feel.
2. Microfiber Microfiber refers to fibers with a fiber diameter below 5μm or 0.44dtex. Microfiber has the characteristics of soft texture, smoothness, good cohesion, and soft luster. The fabrics made with it are very fine, have good warmth retention, and have unique colors. It can also be made into cashmere-style fabrics. Microfibers are mainly used in the manufacture of silk-type fabrics, velveteen, high-efficiency filter materials, and synthetic leather for footwear and clothing.
3. Composite fiber Composite fiber refers to chemical fibers made from two or more polymers, or the same polymer with different molecular weights, through composite spinning. It can be roughly divided into parallel type, skin-core type, distributed type, etc.
Side-by-side composite fibers are composed of two polymers distributed side by side in the radial direction on the fiber cross-section. The skin layer and the core layer of the sheath-core composite fiber are each made of a kind of polymer, which are divided into concentric circles and eccentric circles. Dispersed composite fiber is made ofFibers in which one component is dispersed in a matrix of another component in a micro-spinning matrix.
Side-by-side and eccentric sheath-core composite fibers have three-dimensional curls in three-dimensional space, and have high volumetric bulkiness, extensibility and coverage capabilities. Composite fibers with a concentric circular sheath-core structure can utilize different components of the sheath-core to give the fiber close-up properties. Dispersed composite fibers can be spun into ultrafine fibers, hollow fibers, etc.
Composite fibers can be used to make wool fabrics, silk fabrics, artificial suede, waterproof and breathable fabrics, dust-free clothing and special filter materials.
There are many varieties of differentiated fibers. In addition to the above, there are also colored fibers, high shrinkage fibers, high moisture absorption, high water absorption fibers, antistatic and conductive fibers, and flame retardant fibers. Mnh2eSQxYE9w4


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